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Водопровод, смачиваемость и поверхностное натяжение

29.09.2018 Раздел: Строительство и ремонт Комментарии: (82) Размер текста: A+ / A-

Водопровод тут.

Картинки по запросу Водопровод
Многокилометровые акведуки для подачи воды в Рим, построенные еще в древнем Риме, — величественные и красивые сооружения. Некоторые из них действуют до сих пор.
При постройке современных водопроводов учитывается закон сообщающихся сосудов. По этому закону в сообщающихся сосудах жидкость устанавливается на одинаковом уровне. Это положение справедливо при любой конфигурации труб, соединяющих сосуды (лишь бы их изгибы не поднимались выше уровня жидкости в сосудах). Поэтому трубы могут пролагаться по местам, наиболее удобным для прокладки, и из всех кранов, расположенных ниже уровня жидкости в сосудах, будет исправно вытекать вода. Римские строители этот закона не использовали. Их акведуки — это открытые сверху лотки, а не замкнутые трубы. Скорее всего, это связано с тем, что изготовление герметичного трубопровода такого сечения и его техническое обслуживание (контроль герметичности, очистка, удаление воздушных пробок и т.д.) — задача, еще не освоенная тогдашним уровнем инженерии и технологии.
Поэтому акведуки приходилось строить так, чтобы канал, по которому стекает вода, всегда имел наклон вниз, вне зависимости от того, пересекает ли акведук лощину или холм.
Смачиваемость и поверхностное натяжение
Понятия смачиваемости вы можете коснуться при изучении фторопластовых покрытий. Поверхность кухонной посуды должна быть такой, чтобы пища ее не смачивала, тогда посуда не будет пригорать. Для мыла и косметики поверхность, на которую они наносятся — это наша кожа. Кожа имеет поры, из которых выделяется жир, поэтому она всегда имеет жировую пленку.
Проделайте небольшой домашний опыт. Капните водой на масло или другую жировую поверхность. Вода не растечется. Она образует каплю, а не лужу. Жирную поверхность вода не смачивает. Значит, надо позаботиться, чтобы раствор мыла в воде смачивал кожу, а раствор стирального порошка — белье. Кожу должны смачивать и все выпускаемые кремы, лосьоны и другая косметика, иначе она бесполезна.
Наличие или отсутствие смачиваемости определяется силой сцепления молекул между собой. Причем особую роль играют молекулы на поверхности. Когда какое-либо тело не смачивается жидкостью, это значит, что молекулы на ее поверхности так крепко связаны друг с другом, что капля как бы заключена в туго натянутую пленку. Это явление поверхностного натяжения. Для того чтобы возникла смачиваемость, надо ослабить поверхностное натяжение жидкости. Для этого надо ввести в поверхностный слой жидкости молекулы другого вещества и таким образом разорвать связь поверхностных молекул друг с другом. При ослабленной поверхностной пленке жидкость будет растекаться по коже, и впитываться ею, несмотря на наличие пленки жира.

Водопровод, смачиваемость и поверхностное натяжение Reviewed by Vash-Remontik.ru on . Водопровод тут. Многокилометровые акведуки для подачи воды в Рим, построенные еще в древнем Риме, - величественные и красивые сооружения. Некоторые из них дейст Водопровод тут. Многокилометровые акведуки для подачи воды в Рим, построенные еще в древнем Риме, - величественные и красивые сооружения. Некоторые из них дейст Rating: 0
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