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Шашлык

13.07.2018 Раздел: Разное Комментарии: (135) Размер текста: A+ / A-

Шашлык известен всем народам мира, смыслящим в скотоводстве. Запекание мяса на вертеле было одинаково распространено и на Востоке, и на Западе: в немецких кантонах Швейцарских Альп, у итальянских тирольцев Альто-Адидже, индейцев перуанских Анд, жителей горного Барнео, шерпов Гималайского хребта, в африканской саванне и даже в степях Патагонии.
shashlik1103Как утверждает великий знаток кулинарии в СССР Вильям Похлебкин, слово «шашлык» — вовсе не кавказского происхождения. Его придумали украинцы-запорожцы, исказив крымско-татарское «шишлык», которое в переводе означает «что-нибудь на вертеле».

А в Россию это слово привезли из Крымских походов русские солдаты в середине XVIII века. Впрочем, шашлык был известен у нас и до XVIII века, но назывался «верченое» — мясо, переворачиваемое на вертеле.

«Верченые» куры, утки, мясо и зайцы упоминаются еще в «Росписи царским кушаньям» XVI века.

Самые известные ипостаси шашлыка — это грузинские мцвади, крымский шишлык и шиш-кебаб. Мцвади — это молодая говяжья вырезка, нанизанная на шампур, а иногда привязанная к нему толстой суровой ниткой, чтобы мясо не деформировалось в процессе запекания.

Для шишлыка мясо выдерживают в маринаде из кислого молока по традиционной формуле крымских татар — чем дольше, тем лучше. А для шиш-кебаба турки и азербайджанцы выбирают кусочки молодой баранины с ребрышками и хрящами, посыпая их неимоверным количеством пряной зелени, также смотрите где найти доставка шашлыка.

К шашлыку можно отнести бразильский «шураска». Огромный кусок мяса готовят на шампуре, а его верхний слой, когда он обжаривается, большим и очень острым ножом срезают на тарелку. Так что, это — уже, практически, шаурма.

Шашлык — это и японские якитори («яки» — жарить и «тори» — птица) из свежего мяса, субпродуктов и овощей, которые нанизывают на бамбуковые шпажки и готовят над горячим древесным углем, причем самые вкусные шашлычки получаются из ломтиков курицы, смешанных с кусочками сердца или печенки.

ЖАРИТЬ НЕЛЬЗЯ — ЗАПЕКАТЬ!

«Конечно, приезжайте. Шашлыков нажарим», — привычное летнее приглашение на дачу. Но употреблять глагол «жарить» в отношении шашлыка — это ошибка. Если вдруг решите однажды в буквальном смысле слова пожарить шашлык, вас ждет кулинарный провал.

На самом деле шашлык не жарят, а запекают, а еще точнее — обжигают. Отсюда французский кулинарный термин «гриллировать», что переводится именно как «обжигать», также смотрите https://smak58.ru.

«Для запекания мяса в виде шашлыка, — поучает Похлебкин в своем бестселлере „Тайны хорошей кухни“, — надо брать либо кусочки с приросшим к ним жиром, либо молодое мясо. Но поскольку такие кусочки не всегда бывают в естественном состоянии, то стали придавать обезжиренным кусочкам мяса кусочки жира, взятые из другой части, но сколотые вместе».

Все эти ухищрения нужны для того, чтобы насытить мясо соком. С этой же целью мясо маринуют. Благодаря предварительной обработке оно не будет «гореть» в процессе приготовления.

ВЫСТАВКА ДОСТИЖЕНИЙ

Первый серьезный всплеск популярности шашлыка в том виде, в котором мы его знаем сегодня, случился в сталинском СССР. «Свинарка и пастух» и прочие фильмы, пропагандирующие дружбу народов, пропагандировали также и шашлык.

Так что шашлык — второе после сталинского ампира положительное наследие тоталитаризма. Свою роль сыграла, конечно, и ВДНХ. В итоге — обобщенная, не делающая различий между армянской и грузинской кавказская кухня стала главным ресторанным хитом 50-70-х годов.

А шашлык — бестселлер номер один в этой обойме. И сегодня, среди многообразия национальных и псевдонациональных кухонь и ресторанов, шашлык востребован всегда, а летом, в пору веранд и террас, — особенно, более подробнее смотрите на сайте https://smak58.ru.

Шашлык Reviewed by Vash-Remontik.ru on . Шашлык известен всем народам мира, смыслящим в скотоводстве. Запекание мяса на вертеле было одинаково распространено и на Востоке, и на Западе: в немецких канто Шашлык известен всем народам мира, смыслящим в скотоводстве. Запекание мяса на вертеле было одинаково распространено и на Востоке, и на Западе: в немецких канто Rating: 0
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