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Бетонирование в зимнее время

11.07.2011 Раздел: Строительство и ремонт Комментарии: (80) Размер текста: A+ / A-

Низкая температура – это главная проблема, которая сопровождает бетонирование в зимнее время. Каким же образом она влияет на бетон? Во-первых, торможение процесса гидратации цемента приводит к тому, что срок обретения бетоном прочности увеличивается. Во-вторых, вымерзание воды, входящей в состав бетона, служит причиной полной остановки процессов схватывания и твердения. Но как все-таки поступить, если процесс бетонирования необходимо провести именно в зимнее время?

Поскольку главной задачей является не дать воде, входящей в состав бетона, замерзнуть, само собой разумеется, что каждая технология проведения зимнего бетонирования направлена, прежде всего, на противостояние кристаллизации влаги. В современном строительстве чаще всего применяются следующие методы:

— использование противоморозных добавок к бетону;
— электропрогревание бетона;
— укрывание бетона ПВХ-пленкой, разными утеплителями и тому подобное;
— возведение временного укрытия с прогреванием бетона тепловой пушкой.

Наиболее распространенным способом, который используется во время бетонирования в зимних условиях, является применение противоморозных добавок к бетону. Так называемый зимний бетон предлагается в разных вариациях, которые отличаются между собой процентным соотношением противоморозных добавок к цементу, который входит в ту или другую марку бетона. Концентрация противоморозных добавок так же зависит и от прогнозируемой температуры внешней среды, при которой и будет совершаться процесс бетонирования.

Электропрогревание бетона чаще всего применяется на масштабных объектах, где предусмотрена возможность использования трансформаторов значительной мощности (30-80 кВт). К сожалению, на практике использование этого способа иногда довольно проблематично, особенно для частного застройщика.

бетонирование зимой

По мнению многих специалистов, наиболее рациональным способом бетонирования в зимнее время при температуре от -3 до +3 °С является укрывание бетона. Схватывание и твердение бетона – изотермические процессы, то есть во время застывания и обретения прочности цемент, взаимодействуя с водой, выделяет тепло. Конечно, было бы очень уместно аккумулировать это тепло, внутри бетонной конструкции. Для этого следует свежеотлитую конструкцию из бетона накрыть ПВХ-пленкой или утеплителем.

Иногда, если во время зимнего бетонирования используется обычный бетон без всяких противоморозных добавок, а внешняя температура воздуха вдруг резко падает к минусовым значениям (от -5 до -15 °С), целесообразно применять газовые или электрические тепловые пушки. В таких случаях пласт ПВХ-пленки располагается не на поверхности бетона, а на временном деревянном каркасе. Таким образом, над конструкцией создается что-то наподобие палатки, под которую помещаются тепловые пушки. Чем выше температура под палаткой, тем быстрее бетон приобретет прочность, и, соответственно, тем короче будет время прогревания. Вообще для первичного приобретения бетоном марочной прочности (до 50%), достаточной для продолжения строительных работ, как правило, хватает 1-3 дней прогревания тепловыми пушками.

Однако, что делать, если бетон все же замерз? Главное – не впадать в отчаяние, ведь процессы схватывания и твердения восстановятся, когда температура поднимется выше нуля и вода оттает. Довольно часто встречается ситуация, когда в начале осени случаются первые непродолжительные заморозки, после которых на дворе еще долго стоит плюсовая температура. Понятно, что примороженный бетон продолжит приобретать прочность с наступлением оттепели. Но такая ситуация не проходит для конструкции бесследно: бетон, подмороженный в раннем возрасте, теряет марочную прочность, хотя, учитывая проектные запасы прочности, эти потери не являются критическими.

Как правило, более всего от заморозков страдает верхний пласт бетона. Если речь идет о плитах перекрытия или фундаментных плитах, то внутренний массив конструкции не промерзает. А вот подмороженная поверхность осыпается, будто краска. Происходит это, во-первых, потому, что внутренний массив спасает тепло, выделенное вследствие взаимодействия цемента с водой. Во-вторых, влага, как легчайшая составляющая бетона, поднимается вверх. Вследствие этого, в верхнем пласте конструкции накапливается лишняя несвязанная влага, которая приводит к нарушению водоцементного соотношения.

Если же беда все-таки случилась и бетон замерз, а на потепление надеяться бесполезно, то следует предпринять следующие меры. Нужно накрыть конструкцию ПВХ-пленкой, чтобы заморозки и оттепели не разрушали верхний пласт бетона. Так у цемента останется возможность продолжить гидратацию весной. Конечно, достигнутая прочность будет низшей для расчетной марки бетона, но все же, не настолько, как у просто брошенного под снегом и дождем свежеотлитого бетона.

Бетонирование в зимнее время Reviewed by Vash-Remontik.ru on . Низкая температура – это главная проблема, которая сопровождает бетонирование в зимнее время. Каким же образом она влияет на бетон? Во-первых, торможение процес Низкая температура – это главная проблема, которая сопровождает бетонирование в зимнее время. Каким же образом она влияет на бетон? Во-первых, торможение процес Rating:
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